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   2018| September-December  | Volume 7 | Issue 3  
    Online since September 19, 2018

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Comparison of International Caries Detection and Assessment System and digital radiographs for detecting occlusal dental caries: An In vivo Study
Jayachandra Reddy Bhumireddy, Ramasubbareddy Challa, Sreekanth Kumar Mallineni, Sivakumar Nuvvula
September-December 2018, 7(3):61-65
Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy in the diagnosis of occlusal caries lesion using International Caries Detection and Assessment System II (ICDAS II) and digital radiographs in the primary molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 35 children was selected randomly and recruited for visual ICDAS II and digital bitewing radiographic examination by two independent trained examiners. A total of 249 teeth were examined at D1 (enamel caries lesions) and D3 (dentine caries lesions) thresholds. Results: Sensitivity at D1 for ICDAS II were 95%, and 22.97% for digital radiographs While specificity was 1005 for the both tools. At D3, threshold sensitivity of ICDAS II was 94.%, whereas it was 69% for digital radiographs, while specificity was almost the same for both methods and both D1 and D3 thresholds. Excellent inter- and intra-examiner reliabilities were evident. Conclusions: ICDAS II is better than digital radiographs in detecting carious lesions confined to enamel, and both are equally effective in the detection of dentinal carious lesions.
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Effect of different types of force on the amount of tooth movement, hyaline areas, and root resorption in rats
Osmar Aparecido Cuoghi, Pedro Marcelo Tondelli, Marcos Rogério Mendonça, Carlos Alberto Aiello, Silvano Cesar da Costa, Orlando Motohiro Tanaka
September-December 2018, 7(3):66-71
Aims: This study evaluated the effects of using continuous, continuous interrupted, and intermittent forces on the roots and periodontal ligaments in the first molars of rats. Materials and Methods: The right first molars of 54 Wistar rats were moved with continuous force (CF group), continuous interrupted force (CIF group), or intermittent force (IF group) for 5, 7, and 9 days. Ankylosed incisors were used as anchors for the orthodontic tooth movement. To establish the different types of force, NiTi springs of 50 cN were maintained, deactivated, or removed for certain periods. Amounts of tooth movement, hyaline areas, and root resorption levels were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Tukey's test with a significance level of 5%. Results: There was no difference in the amount of tooth movement between the CF and CIF groups, which differed significantly from the IF group. The CF group demonstrated a significant formation of hyaline areas, nearly 5 times more, mainly on the fifth day. Conclusions: Continuous force produced more hyaline areas with greater probability of generating root resorption. Continuous interrupted force enabled better periodontal ligament repair and more efficient elimination of hyaline areas.
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Changes in the mandibular arch after rapid maxillary expansion in children: A three-dimensional analysis using digital models
Ariel Adriano Reyes Pacheco, Ademir Franco, Oscar Mario Antelo, Matheus Melo Pithon, Orlando Motohiro Tanaka
September-December 2018, 7(3):47-50
Objective: This retrospective study quantitatively evaluated and compared the change in distance between mandibular first molars before and after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) using digital models. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven (n = 27) plaster models (16 females and 11 males, between 6 and 9 years old) from patients treated at the Interceptive Orthodontic Clinic of the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná (PUCPR, Curitiba, Brazil) were used. The initial (T1) and final (1 year after, T2) dental casts were scanned. The distances between the mandibular first molars were measured and compared using Geomagic Foundation software (Rock Hill, SC, USA). The central fossa of each mandibular molar was used as the reference point. The mandibular arch perimeter was measured using Orthoviewer (3Shape, Copenhagen, Denmark). Results: The intermolar width increased by 0.23 mm and by 0.75 mm in the arch perimeter. In two patients the intermolar width increased more than 2 mm, and in five patients the values from the initial measurements decreased. Conclusions: RME does not increase mandibular intermolar width distance or the mandibular arch perimeter in growing patients treated with Haas-type palatal expanders when evaluated using digital models.
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Fracture resistance of the permanent restorations for endodontically treated premolars
Galvin Sim Siang Lin, Nik Rozainah Nik Abdul Ghani, Tahir Yusuf Noorani, Noor Huda Ismail
September-December 2018, 7(3):56-60
Aim: This study aims to compare the fracture strength, fracture pattern, types of fracture involved, and areas of fractured restoration among endodontically treated permanent lower premolars restored with different restorative materials. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine mature human permanent lower premolars recently extracted for orthodontic, periodontal, or other reasons were selected and divided into three groups (n = 23). Groups 1 and 2 were endodontically treated. Standardized mesio-occlusal distal cavities were then prepared in both Groups 1 and 2. Groups 1 and 2 were restored with amalgam using Nayyar's core technique and glass fiber post with composite resin core, respectively. Group 3 consisted of intact teeth which acted as control group. All teeth were tested under constant occlusal load until fracture occurred using a Universal Testing Machine. Data analysis was carried out using Kruskal–Wallis test complemented by Mann–Whitney test. Results: The mean values of fracture strength were 388.05 N (± 158.09) for Group 1, 588.90 N (± 151.33) for Group 2, and 803.05 N (± 182.23) for Group 3. Kruskal–Wallis test showed significant differences among all three groups in terms of fracture strength. The mean load required to fracture intact teeth in Group 3 was significantly highest, followed by Group 2 (P < 0.01) and finally Group 1 (P < 0.01). Most fractures occurred within the coronal structure and were considered favorable pattern. Besides, majority of the fractures occurred on restorations and particularly at the distal side. Conclusions: Teeth restored with fiber post and composite core resulted in higher fracture resistance than teeth restored with Nayyar's core amalgam restoration.
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Analysis of pH and cytotoxic activity of locally produced radiopaque white Portland cement
Soh Chin Fen, Loh Wei Lek, Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan, Siti Fadilah Bin Abdullah, Adam Husein, Mohamed Shady Nabhan, Hany Mohamed Aly Ahmed
September-December 2018, 7(3):51-55
Background: Portland cement (PC)-based formulations show continuous developments. Purpose: This study examined the pH and cytotoxic activity of a locally produced Malaysian white PC (MAWPC) mixed with different radiopacifying agents (barium sulfate [BS], niobium oxide [NO], and bismuth oxide [BO]) on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLFs). Materials and Methods: 0.8 g of MAWPC was mixed with 0.2 g of each radiopacifying agent and sterile distilled water. Five tablets of each group were prepared. After setting, the samples were immersed in 10-ml sterile distilled water and stored at 37°C, and the pH was measured at intervals of 0, 1, 3, 7, and 14 days using a calibrated digital pH meter. One-way ANOVA was used for data analysis (P = 0.05). For cytotoxic activity, the material extracts were prepared at three serial concentrations (25, 12.5, and 6.25 mg/ml), and 200 ml of each concentration was added into each well seeded with cultured HPLFs. The plates were then incubated for 48 h. The cell viability was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the data were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis test (P = 0.05) Results: The pH values of all groups were significantly higher compared to the control group (P < 0.001). With the exception of day 0, the pH values of all groups at all day intervals ranged from 9.9 to 10.9, and some significant differences were detected. Although the addition of radiopacifying agents decreased the cell viability values of MAWPC extracts (P < 0.05), all groups showed favorable cytotoxicity profile. MAWPC/BO combination showed higher cell viability values compared to MAWPC/NO and MAWPC/BS. Conclusions: The addition of radiopacifying agents to MAWPC maintained its high pH and favored the viability of HPLFs.
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