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   2018| May-August  | Volume 7 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 14, 2018

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Comparison of different base materials on fracture strength of mesio-occlusal-distal composite restorations
Fatma Dilsad Oz, Esra Ergin, Sevil Gurgan
May-August 2018, 7(2):25-30
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different base materials on fracture strength of mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) composite restorations. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight extracted, intact maxillary molar teeth with standardized, deep MOD cavities were randomly assigned into four groups according to the base material placed: Control group (CO); no base material, SDR group; bulk-fill flowable composite, CGIC group; chemically curing glass ionomer cement (GIC), and RGIC group; light curing resin reinforced GIC. All the specimens were then restored with a nanocomposite (CeramX Duo/Dentsply) in combination with etch and rinse adhesive following the manufacturer's instructions. After aging fracture, strength of the specimens was tested by the application of a ramped oblique load to the buccal cusp in a universal testing machine. Mean fracture strength values for each group were calculated and compared using one-way ANOVA (P = 0.05). Fracture patterns of the specimens were also evaluated. Results: The mean loads necessary to fracture the samples were as follows: control: 819.22 ± 253.65; SDR: 694.46 ± 266. 55; CGIC: 559.15 ± 277.34; RGIC 861.87 ± 277.28: N. The control and RGIC groups showed significantly higher fracture strength than CGIC and SDR groups (P < 0.05). Although the mean fracture strength value of SDR group was higher than that of CGIC group, the difference between these groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Most frequently observed fracture patterns were adhesive (58.3%) in CO, cohesive (50%) in SDR group, cohesive (83.3%) in CGIC group, and mixed (41.7%) in RGIC group. Conclusions: Resin-modified glass-ionomer cement as a base material or restoration of the tooth only with composite resin resulted in higher fracture strength than composite resin restoration with a conventional glass ionomer base or a flowable bulk-fill material. Fracture pattern distributions diversed according to the base material placed under composite restoration.
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Child physical abuse: Perception and responsibility of dentists living in the United Arab Emirates
Raghad Hashim, Samar Al-Dallal
May-August 2018, 7(2):31-34
Aims: The aims of this study were to investigate dentists' level of knowledge and experience regarding child physical abuse in the United Arab Emirates, to identify barriers that prevent the reporting of suspected cases by dental practitioners, and to assess the need for training dentists in child protection. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 124 dentists working in private practice in the Emirate of Dubai; the data were collected by self-administered structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive analyses for responses to each question. Results: Of all general dental practitioners invited to participate, only 70% have responded. Almost one-quarter of the dentists encountered a suspicious child abuse case at least once in their career, but only 30% of those reported their suspicion. The most common barriers that preclude the dentists from reporting child abuse cases were uncertainty about their diagnosis, lack of knowledge regarding referral procedures, followed by the fear of violence in the family toward the child. However, the majority of the participants were aware of their legal responsibilities toward protecting children from abuse and they expressed their need for further training in this area. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, it appears that the level of knowledge among the respondents regarding the recognition and reporting of child physical abuse was lacking. Therefore, specialized training in this area is highly recommended.
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Safety comparison of over the counter bleaching with professionally prescribed home bleaching agent
Japsimretjit Kaur Manjit Singh, Masturah Sengut, Mohamad Syahrizal Halim, Zuryati Ab-Ghani, Normastura Abd Rahman
May-August 2018, 7(2):35-40
Aims: This aimed to compare the colour changes, microhardness, and surface roughness of the human natural tooth after bleaching treatment with a professional home bleaching agent and over-the-counter (OTC) bleaching agent. Settings and Design: This was an in vitro study using extracted human teeth stained with human blood as specimens. Materials and Methods: Fifty-seven human natural teeth were embedded in acrylic of 2.5 mm thickness and 14 mm × 8 mm surface area. The samples were stained with human blood before they were divided into three groups (n = 19 per group) of control (C), Professional Bleaching Opalescence PF 15% (PB), and OTC Whitelight Tooth Whitening set (WL) before being treated with the respective bleaching agents for 10 days. Color changes were measured as colorimetric measurements (L*, a*, and b* values) were recorded during prestaining, poststaining, and postbleaching, while microhardness and surface roughness measurements were recorded for pre- and postbleaching. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done with SPSS (IBM Statistic, California, USA) version 22.0. Paired t-test and nonparametric analysis (Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test) were used to analyze the data. P value was set as significant at P < 0.05. Results: The color changes in PB group was not significantly better compared with WL group (PB: 12.2 [4.07] and WL: 12.2 [4.32]). Whereas significant difference was noticed in microhardness after bleaching in PB group with a higher VHN number (500.4 [121.10]) compared with WL group (471.0 [114.47]) . The surface roughness (Ra) remain the same for all experimental groups. Conclusions: Both professional home bleaching agent and OTC bleaching agents showed similar efficacy, with no effect on surface roughness, and both caused an increase in microhardness.
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A survey on preference for continuing professional development among general dental practitioners in Malaysia: A pilot study
Nor Faharina Abdul Hamid, Nur Hafizah Kamar Affendi, Nur Elida Shahira Khairul Anwar, Nur Fara Izani Muhammad Nor Ikhwan Tan
May-August 2018, 7(2):41-45
Background: Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is the fundamental components of the Malaysian Dental Council's policy for improving clinical governance within the dental profession in Malaysia. In Malaysia, participation in CPD activities is compulsory for renewal of practices license. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the current CPD practices of Malaysian general dental practitioner (GDP) and to identify the participations in CPD among GDP in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A total of 114 GDP who attended three CPD program at the Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi MARA were invited to participate in a paper-based questionnaire survey to assess their awareness, participation, and opinion toward the CPD program. Results: Of 110 respondents, 81.7% kept a CPD portfolio. About 93.9% of GDP agree it is important to engage with CPD program. Topic in restorative dentistry, esthetic dentistry, and endodontics attracted high level of interest among GDP, while biostatic was the least preferred. Full-day duration hands-on workshops on Sunday and Saturday was the most preferred CPD programs by most of the respondents. Nearly, 83.3% of GDP considered that lack of time was the main obstacles for attending CPD. Conclusion: This study will provide valuable information to assist Malaysian CPD providers and organizers to formulate appropriate approaches and topics during the planning and conducting the CPD courses and programs according to the needs and actual demands.
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Erratum: Dentinogenic differentiation potential of fast set white portland cements of a different origin on dental pulp stem cells

May-August 2018, 7(2):46-46
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