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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 86-89

Mental depression as a risk factor for periodontal disease: A case-control study

1 Department of Periodontology, Dr. Z. A. Dental College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
2 Department of Psychiatry, J. N. Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
3 Career Dental College, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Zareen Fatima
Department of Periodontology, Dr. Z. A. Dental College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2278-9626.179557

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Aim: Periodontal disease is an immune-inflammatory response of tooth supporting structures to microbial dental plaque. It is influenced by various factors such as poor oral hygiene, smoking, systemic diseases, and psychological factors such as stress. This case-control study was performed to consider mental depression as a risk factor for periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 170 subjects were selected. All the subjects were assessed for the presence of depression by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria and severity of depression was measured by Hamilton depression rating scale. For assessment of periodontal disease, clinical periodontal parameters oral hygiene index, gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded. Results: Univariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that subjects with depression had significantly higher values of debris index, calculus index, gingival index, PPD, and CAL (P < 0.001). Periodontal status was poor in patients with severe and very severe grade depression patients (P = 0.049). For all the indices/parameters, mean values of patients with > 6 months of illness were higher (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it is concluded that mental depression significantly affects the periodontium. It may be considered as risk factor for periodontal disease.

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