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   2019| May-August  | Volume 8 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 8, 2019

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Treatment and prevention of oral mucositis: A literature review
Paras Ahmad, Usman Akhtar, Ahmed Chaudhry, Usman Rashid, Sarmad Saif, Jawaad Ahmed Asif
May-August 2019, 8(2):23-28
Oral health is a cardinal element of nutritional as well as systemic well-being and plays a substantial part in sustaining optimum general health condition. Various factors influence oral health including metabolic diseases such as endocrine, hematological, gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and neurological diseases. The intent of this review is to highlight the treatment as well as prevention strategies for one of the most devastating repercussions of chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) on the oral cavity in the form of oral mucositis (OM). A review of literature was performed using relevant key words (”Mucositis” OR “Oral Mucositis” OR “Oral Stomatitis” AND “Treatment of Mucositis” OR “Treatment of Oral Mucositis” OR “Treatment of Oral Stomatitis” AND “Prevention of Mucositis” OR “Prevention of Oral Mucositis” OR “Prevention of Oral Stomatitis”) in prominent journals pertaining to Oncology and Dentistry (CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, Cancer, Frontiers in Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, and Oral Oncology). It is basically sequelae of CT, RT, and radiochemotherapy in patients suffering from malignant diseases as well as those who require hematopoietic stem cell transplants. In addition to its negative effects on the oral cavity and consequently on the overall quality of life, OM may lead to delay in cancer treatment which incriminates in a poor prognosis of the disease.
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Comparison of naproxen and Gelofen for Pain relief in lower third molar surgery: A single-blinded randomized clinical trial
Ehsan Aliabadi, Saeid Tavanafar, Mehdi Hayati
May-August 2019, 8(2):41-44
Objectives: Third molar surgeries are a routine procedure in oral and maxillofacial surgery and its associated pain is bothersome to patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the analgesic effect of Gelofen and naproxen in lower third molar surgery. Materials and Methods: A single-blinded randomized clinical trial was designed, and patients were randomly allocated into four groups (n = 20 cases in each group): pre-Gelofen group: 400 mg Gelofen 30 min preoperative and continuing every 6 h, Gelofen group: 400 mg Gelofen immediately postoperative and continuing every 6 h, pre-naproxen group: 500 mg naproxen 30 min preoperative and every 8 h, and naproxen group: 500 mg naproxen immediately postoperative and every 8 h. The pain intensity was recorded using the visual analog scale at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery. Results: Pain intensity decreased in a linear pattern in all groups after 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. In pre-naproxen group, pain decreased suddenly between 2 and 6 h, but after 6 h, pain relief was slower than other groups. The mean pain intensity at 2 h postoperative for the pre-naproxen group was significantly lower than Gelofen group, and at 6 h, it was less than all other groups. At 12 and 24 h after surgery, pain intensity in all groups was similar except for the Gelofen group. Conclusion: Under limitation of the present study, preoperative intake of naproxen showed more effective pain relief than other groups.
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Effect of liner on the marginal integrity of resin composite restorations after selective caries excavation: An In Vitro study
Shailaja Datta, Baranya Shrikrishna Suprabha, Ethel Suman, Ramya Shenoy, Arathi Rao, KP Nandita
May-August 2019, 8(2):29-35
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of cavity liner on marginal adaptation and microleakage of resin composite restorations placed with and without selective caries excavation. Materials and Methods: Class II cavities were prepared in 64 extracted upper premolar teeth followed by microbiological caries induction to simulate deep carious lesions. Composite restorations were performed: Group 1A: without liner and Group 1B: with resin-modified glass ionomer liner after nonselective caries excavation; Group 2A: without liner and Group 2B: with resin-modified glass ionomer liner after selective caries excavation. Maximum gap thickness was measured using a scanning electron microscope to assess the marginal adaptation, and dye penetration method was used for microleakage assessment. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in maximum gap thickness based on the type of caries excavation (P < 0.001) but not for the placement of liner. Selective caries excavation groups had higher values at all margins. Microleakage between the groups was significantly different, both at the occlusal (P = 0.006) and gingival margins (P < 0.001), with Groups 2A and 2B showing higher microleakage. Conclusion: Resin composite restorations performed after selective caries excavation showed decreased marginal integrity and liner application did not contribute to any significant improvement in the same.
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Bulk-fill versus conventional composite: A comparative analysis on degree of conversion
Fernanda Ferreira de Albuquerque Jasse, Hélida Gomes de Oliveira Barud, Juliana Maria Capelozza Boaventura, Cristiane de Melo Alencar, Alexandre Gatti, Edson Alves de Campos
May-August 2019, 8(2):36-40
Aim: This study aimed to determine the degree of conversion (DC) of two resin-based composites: a conventional nanohybrid composite and a bulk-fill flowable composite (SureFil® SDR™ flow). Materials and Methods: DC was evaluated at 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-mm depths at varying irradiation times (20 and 40 s) by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Disc-shaped specimens of varying depths were prepared and photoactivated with a third-generation light-emitting diode light-curing unit. The specimens were stored for 24 h in the dark at ambient temperature and pulverized into a fine powder which was mixed with potassium bromide. After homogenization, the mixture pressed to form a pellet. All pellets were evaluated by an infrared spectrometer equipped with a triglycine sulfate detector using diffuse reflectance. The percentage of monomer conversion was determined from the ratio of the absorbance intensities of the aliphatic carbon–carbon double bonds (C = C) and the internal standard before and after the curing of the composite, represented by the aromatic carbon–carbon single bonds (C-C). Results: The DC data for the bulk-fill resin showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) for different irradiation depths, whereas for the conventional nanohybrid resins, statistical analyses revealed a significant result of the variables time and depth as well as the interaction between them. Conclusions: The results indicated that SDR™ achieves a 4-mm depth of cure with both 20- and 40-s light exposures.
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Comparison of miller's classification of gingival recession defects with mahajan's classification of gingival recession defect: A reliability study
Ajay Mahajan, Kanwarjit Singh Asi, Deepa Rayast, Mayum Negi
May-August 2019, 8(2):45-50
Background: Gingival recession is a common periodontal problem encountered in most populations. A number of classification systems are available to classify gingival recession defects (GRDs), but there has been a lack of consensus among the clinicians regarding the choice of classification system to classify GRDs. Recently, Miller's classification has been criticized owing to its inherent limitations. Mahajan's classification was proposed to eliminate the drawbacks of Miller's classification system. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no study testing or comparing the reliability of Miller's classification; therefore, the present study was done to compare the reliability of Miller's classification with Mahajan's classification. Materials and Methods: The sites selected for the study were classified for GRD according to either Miller's classification or Mahajan's classification by the two groups of four examiners. All the examiners were calibrated for the two classification systems and classified the selected sites accordingly. Kappa statistics was performed to analyze the intra- and interrater agreement among the four examiners. Results: A total of 609 gingival recession sites in 91 patients (49 males and 42 females) were classified. At the end of the study, Mahajan's classification had a higher intrarater (κ = 0.93–0.83) and interrater reliability (κ = 0.93) compared to Miller's classification for GRD for both intrarater (κ = 0.57–0.68) and interrater observations (κ = 0.66), respectively. Conclusions: Miller's classification system was less reliable than Mahajan's classification system.
  522 91 -
Pulp canal calcification associated with periapical lesion as dental trauma sequelae – Clinical-surgical treatment
Michelle Zardin Furich, Cristina Braga Xavier, Luis Eduardo Rilling Nova Cruz, Josué Martos
May-August 2019, 8(2):51-54
The objective of this report is to describe a surgical treatment in a traumatized tooth presenting pulp canal calcification (PCC) and periapical pathology. Three months after a patient had suffered injuries by luxation in the right central mandibular incisor, complete calcification of root canals was radiographically observed in addition to a radiographic image compatible with apical periodontitis. The chosen treatment was endodontic surgery and apical root sealing with mineral trioxide aggregate endodontic cement. After 4 months, the tooth showed complete apical repair. We concluded that the endodontic surgery is a procedure specifically indicated for cases of impossibility of conventional endodontic treatment, as in teeth with PCC.
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