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   2014| January-April  | Volume 3 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 1, 2014

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Pulpectomy procedures in primary molar teeth
Hany Mohamed Aly Ahmed
January-April 2014, 3(1):3-10
DOI:10.4103/2278-9626.126201  
Premature loss of primary molars can cause a number of undesirable consequences including loss of arch length, insufficient space for erupting premolars and mesial tipping of the permanent molars. Pulpectomy of primary molar teeth is considered as a reasonable treatment approach to ensure either normal shedding or a long-term survival in instances of retention. Despite being a more conservative treatment option than extraction, efficient pulpectomy of bizarre and tortuous root canals encased in roots programmed for physiologic resorption that show close proximity to developing permanent tooth buds presents a critical endodontic challenge. This article aims to provide an overview of this treatment approach, including partial and total pulpectomy, in primary molar teeth. In addition, the recommended guidelines that should be followed, and the current updates that have been developed, while commencing total pulpectomy in primary molars are discussed.
  130,737 10,352 6
CASE REPORTS
Endodontic management of horizontal root fractures in maxillary central incisors
Kothandaraman Sathyanarayanan
January-April 2014, 3(1):75-78
DOI:10.4103/2278-9626.126217  
Root fracture implies fracture of cementum, dentin, and pulp. These injuries are relatively infrequent as they constitute <3% of all dental injuries. When a root fracture occurs horizontally, the coronal segment may or may not be displaced. This article illustrates two varied treatment options for horizontal root fractures in maxillary central incisors. In the first case, endodontic treatment was performed using a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based sealer. In the second case, repositioning and splinting of the teeth allowed revascularization and preservation of teeth vitality. A 12-month follow-up period was reported for the two cases.
  17,453 1,550 -
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Management of muslim dental patient while fasting
Faizal C Peedikayil, Abraham Thomas, MC Naushad, Arun Narayanan
January-April 2014, 3(1):82-84
DOI:10.4103/2278-9626.126219  
The dawn to dusk fast in the Islamic month of Ramadan is obligatory for all Muslims. During fasting, Muslims abstain from food, drink whilst going about their normal daily activities. Poor understanding and appreciation of the practices by the medical professional may lead to compromise in treatment and inability to provide good service for the patients. This article provides insight to dentists around the globe to carry out comprehensive and preventive dental treatment to fasting patients in the month of Ramadan.
  7,183 637 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Transparent tooth model: A study of root canal morphology using different reagents
Bhavana Gupta, Babusha Tiwari, Vineet Raj, Bina Kashyap, Shaleen Chandra, Nidhi Dwivedi
January-April 2014, 3(1):66-70
DOI:10.4103/2278-9626.126215  
Background: The complexity of root canal morphology has fascinated the imaginations of many. Several techniques have been tried in the past to view the three-dimensional anatomy of the pulp canal system with varied success. It has been hypothesized in the present study that a combination of decalcifying agent and clearing agent can be used to prepare transparent tooth model. Aims: The aim of the present study was to access the efficacy of two decalcifying agent (formic acid and nitric acid) and two clearing agents (methyl salicylate and eugenol) to prepare transparent tooth model. Materials and Methods: The study material included 80 freshly extracted teeth both maxillary and mandibular. After decalcifying and clearing of the specimen, they were graded for transparency and haziness criteria. Results: The results of the present study indicated that methyl salicylate when used as a clearing agent showed better transparency, lower level of haziness and good root canal morphology. On the other hand samples cleared by eugenol showed good root canal morphology but lesser transparency and higher degree of haziness and yellowing of samples, more so when used in combination with nitric acid. Conclusion: It was concluded by the present study that combination of nitric acid when used with methyl salicylate proved to be the best combination for the preparation of the transparent tooth model.
  6,767 959 -
Forensic importance of maxillary sinus in gender determination: A morphometric analysis from Western Uttar Pradesh, India
Ruhi Sidhu, Sunira Chandra, Parvathi Devi, Neeraj Taneja, Kunal Sah, Navdeep Kaur
January-April 2014, 3(1):53-56
DOI:10.4103/2278-9626.126213  
Background: The study of anthropometric characteristics is of fundamental importance to solve problems related to identification. Craniometrical features are included among these characteristics, which are closely connected to forensic dentistry. Radiography is used in forensic for the identification of humans especially in cases where the body is decomposed, fragmented, or burned. Radiology can assist in giving accurate dimensions for which certain formulae can be applied to determine the gender. It has been reported that maxillary sinuses remain intact, although the skull and other bones may be badly disfigured in victims who are incinerated and therefore, that maxillary sinuses can be used for identification. Aim: This study has been carried out to check the accuracy and reliability of maxillary sinus in gender determination using morphometric parameters. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalogram of 50 subjects (25 males and 25 females) were taken and morphometric parameters of maxillary sinus were analyzed using AutoCAD 2010 software (Autodesk, Inc.). Results: The mean area and perimeter of maxillary sinus in males was 1.7261 cm 2 and 5.2885 cm whereas, the mean area and perimeter in females was 1.3424 cm 2 and 4.3901 cm. In-group centroids if someone's discriminant function (DF) score is close to 0.838 then the subject are supposed to be male. Whereas, those having DF score closer to −0.838 are supposed to be females. DF analysis showed that, 76% of the original grouped cases were correctly classified. Hence, the overall sensitivity and specificity was found to be 80% and 72%. Conclusion: It can be concluded that morphometric analysis (area and perimeter) of maxillary sinus using AutoCAD 2010 software can assist in gender determination.
  6,245 1,246 13
Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of two commercially available controlled-release drugs-chlorhexidine gel (CHLO-SITE) TM and tetracycline fibers (periodontal plus AB) TM as an adjunct to scaling root planning in the treatment of chronic periodontitis
Harpreet Singh Grover, Amit Bhardwaj, Himanshu Dadlani, Anil Yadav, Yaswin Singh
January-April 2014, 3(1):39-45
DOI:10.4103/2278-9626.126209  
Background: Selective removal or inhibition of pathogenic microbes with locally delivered antimicrobials, combined with scaling and root planning (SRP) is an effective approach for the management of chronic periodontitis. Aim: Evaluation of the efficacy of two commercially available controlled release drugs - tetracycline fibers (periodontal plus AB TM ) and chlorhexidine gel (CHLO-SITE TM ) as an adjunct to SRP in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Twenty systemically healthy patients in the age group of 30-50 years suffering from generalized chronic periodontitis were selected. Three experimental sites were chosen that had probing depth 5-8 mm in maxillary and mandibular posterior segment. First site receiving tetracycline fibers, other chlorhexidine gel and one site was taken as control after SRP. Plaque score, bleeding score, probing pocket depth (PPD), and relative attachment level (RAL) gain were recorded on baseline, 1 month and at the end of 3 months. Results and Conclusion: In all groups, there was statistically highly significant reduction in all the clinical parameters that is plaque score, bleeding score, PPD, and RAL gain were seen at different time intervals. Inter-comparison shows that tetracycline fibers and chlorhexidine gel are equally efficacious for treatment of chronic periodontitis, but more efficient than SRP alone.
  5,147 719 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Bisphosphonates and the field of dentistry
Farzeen Tanwir, Ali Abid Mirza, Dania Tauseef, Amber Mahar
January-April 2014, 3(1):11-16
DOI:10.4103/2278-9626.126202  
Bisphosphonates are the drugs used to prevent loss of bone and to treat bone diseases and conditions that feature bone fragility. Bisphosphonates, according to the potency levels, are divided into three generations and potency levels have increased with successive generations and, according to mechanism of action, they are divided into Non-nitrogenous and Nitrogenous bisphosphonates. Clinically, nitrogen containing bisphosphonates are more potent. Oral bisphosphonates are safer than intravenous infusion. Oral bisphosphonates may cause recurrent ulcers with burning sensation and blisters in the oral cavity, while intravenous bisphosphonates may cause renal failure. The most serious complication of intravenous bisphosphonates is osteonecrosis of jaw bones especially after tooth extraction. Endodontic therapy is not a significant risk factor for promoting bisphosphonates-related osteonecrosis, so endodontic therapy can be an alternative to tooth extraction when possible. Regarding treatment, parathyroid hormone can be helpful because it stimulates bone formation by promoting bone turnover.
  5,180 661 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Cytogenetic biomonitoring of premalignant and malignant oral lesions by micronuclei assessment: A screening evaluation
Shally Khanna, Anupam Purwar, Narendra Nath Singh, Gadiputi Sreedhar, Shailendra Singh, Saurabh Bhalla
January-April 2014, 3(1):46-52
DOI:10.4103/2278-9626.126211  
Background: Micronuclei (MN) are extracytoplasmic nuclear bodies, which are induced in cells by numerous genotoxic agents that damage the chromosomes. The damaged chromosomes in the form of acentric chromatids or chromosome fragments lag behind in anaphase when centric elements move towards the spindle poles, and thus leads to the formation of secondary nuclei called MN, which are also transmitted to the daughter cells. In oral exfoliated cells these MN are induced by variety of carcinogenic compounds like tobacco, betel nut, and alcohol; which have been suggested to be the most common cause of premalignant lesion conditions and oral cancer, and thus can be used as a biomarker for cytogenetic damage. Objectives: To evaluate and compare the frequency of MN in Papanicolaou (PAP) stained smears of oral exfoliated cells from healthy control, leukoplakia, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) group in a small population of eastern Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Cytological smears were prepared from buccal mucosa of healthy control, leukoplakia patients, and SCC group and stained with PAP stain. Slides were screened, and micronucleated cells were counted out of thousand and compared in different groups. Results: Mean MN count was highest for the SCC group (10.13), followed by leukoplakia group (6.15), and lowest for healthy controls (3.28); with count ranging from 7-14, 4-8, and 2-4, respectively. Tukey's HSD and ROC analysis showed the intergroup differences were significant statistically (P < 0.05) and thus, mean MN density seems to be a useful tool for differential diagnosis with high accuracy. Conclusion: MN were higher in SCC than in leukoplakia and healthy control, moreover. Hence, MN assay can be used as an important biomarker for cytogenetic damage in oral leukoplakia and SCC.
  4,095 626 1
The influence of different mixing methods on the dimensional stability and surface detail reproduction of two different brands of irreversible hydrocolloids
Ahmet Kursad Culhaoglu, Ali Zaimoglu, Evrim Dogan, Serhat Emre Ozkir
January-April 2014, 3(1):17-21
DOI:10.4103/2278-9626.126204  
Purpose: Irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials are some of the most common impression materials in dentistry. Preparation of alginate is critical for dental appliance fabricated upon the cast made directly from the impression. This study compared the effect of two mixing methods i.e. hand mixing or device mixing on the physical properties of two different brands of irreversible hydrocolloid. Materials and Methods: Two alginate impression materials: Cavex Tulip (Tulip, Cavex Holland BV, Haarlem, Holland) and Hydrogum Soft (Zhermack, Rovigo, Italy), were mixed according to manufacturers instroductions with two mixing methods. Mixing was performed at room temperature using tap water. The material was allowed to set in a water bath at 35°C (±1°C), simulating intra-oral setting conditions. For each tested material, nine standardized samples were used. The first method was hand mixing; the other method was with a device. Detail reproduction and dimensional changes of impressions were compared. One-way analysis of variance was performed to compare the dimensional differences between the four groups. Results: The device mixed speciemens showed better surface detail than hand-mixed samples. Cavex alginate demonstrated better surface detail than Hydrogum. Cavex Tulip alginate showed better dimensional stability than Hydrogum Soft in both hand-mixed and device-mixed samples. Furthermore, all device mixed samples were better than hand-mixed in terms of dimensional stability. A two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's protected least significant difference test at the 0.05 level of significance were used to analyze the data. Conclusion: Of the two mixing methods, the vacuum mixer had the best performance overall in reducing the number, percent and volume of porosities in the mixed alginate.
  3,553 556 2
Insights into and relative effect of chitosan-krill oil, chitosan-H-aspirin, chitosan-H-krill oil-nystatin and chitosan-H-krill oil-aspirin-nystatin on dentin bond strength and functional drug delivery capacity: In-vitro studies
Victoria Tamara Perchyonok, Shengmiao Zhang, Sias R Grobler, Theunis G Oberholzer, Ward Massey
January-April 2014, 3(1):57-65
DOI:10.4103/2278-9626.126214  
Background: Restorative materials in the new era aim to be "bio-active" and long-lasting. The purpose of this study was to design and to evaluate a novel chitosan hydrogels containing krill oil (antioxidant containing material), nystatin (antifungal), aspirin (pain relieve medication and free radical scavengers) and combinations thereof (chitosan-H-krill oil, chitosan-H-krill oil-nystatin and chitosan-H-aspirin, chitosan-H-aspirin-nystatin, chitosan-H-krill oil-aspirin and chitosan-H-krill oil-aspirin-nystatin) as functional additive prototypes for further development of "dual function restorative materials," and secondly to determine their effect on the dentin bond strength of a composite. Materials and Methods: The above-mentioned hydrogels were prepared by dispersion the corresponding component in glycerol and acetic acid with the addition of chitosan gelling agent. The surface morphology (scanning electron microscope (SEM)), release behaviors (physiological pH and also in acidic conditions), stability of the therapeutic agent-antioxidant-chitosan and the effect of the hydrogels on the shear bond strength of dentin were also evaluated. Results: The release of nystatin and aspirin confer the added benefit of synergistic action of a functional therapeutic delivery when comparing the newly designed chitosan-based hydrogel restorative materials to the commercially available products alone. Neither the release of nystatin and aspirin nor the antioxidant stability was affected by storage over a 6 month period. The hydrogel formulations have a uniform distribution of drug content, homogenous texture and yellow color (SEM study). All chitosan dentin treated hydrogels gave significantly (P<0.05; non-parametric ANOVA test) higher shear bond values (P<0.05) than dentin treated or not treated with phosphoric acid. Conclusion: The added benefits of the chitosan treated hydrogels involved positive influence on the nystatin and aspirin release as well as increased dentin bond strength.
  3,604 369 3
CASE REPORTS
Pigmented natal teeth
Nesrin Saruhan, Tevfik Demirci, Ertan Yalcin
January-April 2014, 3(1):79-81
DOI:10.4103/2278-9626.126218  
The presence of teeth at birth or within a month post-delivery is a rare condition. The exact etiology has not been proved yet, but there is a correlation between natal teeth and hereditary, environmental factors and some syndromes. A newborn 3-day-old male, with two mandibular incisor natal teeth was examined. The teeth were mobile and were extracted because of the fear of aspiration and refusal to feed. In this report, we present a case of pigmented natal teeth in mandible and treatment with extraction.
  3,592 350 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Can dentin surfaces be bonded safely with total-etch and self-etch systems?
Mehmet Akin, Zeliha Muge Baka, Zehra Ileri, Faruk Ayhan Basciftci
January-April 2014, 3(1):34-38
DOI:10.4103/2278-9626.126208  
Objective: To assess and compare the shear bond strengths (SBSs) of orthodontic brackets bonded to enamel and dentin surfaces by using total-etching and 3 different self-etching adhesives. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 extracted mandibular incisors were randomly divided into 4 groups. In Group I, the hard tissue was etched with 37% phosphoric acid; in Group II, Transbond Plus Self Etching Primer (TSEP) system was used; in Group III, Clearfil Tri-S Bond Plus was used; and, in Group IV, AdheSE was used. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups: The enamel surfaces were conditioned in subgroup-A, and the dentin surfaces were conditioned in subgroup-B. The samples were stored in water for 24 h at 37°C and then thermocycled. The SBS in megapascals (MPa) was determined by a shear test with 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed, and failure types were classified with modified adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores. The data were analyzed with two-way analyses of variance, Tukey's, and Chi-square tests at the 0.05 level. Results: The mean SBS value of subgroup-A in Group I was significantly higher than the mean values in the other groups (P<0.05). There were no significant differences among the SBS values in the other groups (P>0.05). Significant differences were found in the ARI between subgroup-A in Group I and the other groups (P<0.001). Conclusions: When used on the enamel, the self-etch systems did not have bond strengths as high as that in the conventional method. However, the self-etch systems can be used as successfully as the conventional method on dentin surfaces.
  3,141 411 -
CASE REPORTS
An illusionary prosthetic design for a unilateral cleft palate patient
Andaç Barkın Bavbek, Ahmet Kursad Culhaoglu
January-April 2014, 3(1):71-74
DOI:10.4103/2278-9626.126216  
The prosthetic rehabilitation is an important part of the cleft lip and palate therapy assisting orthodontic and orthognathic treatments. Prosthesis does not only help to improve function and aesthetics but also needs to facilitate a better oral health. The aim of this report is to introduce the prosthetic approach of a 21-year-old female unilateral cleft palate patient that considered reinforcing the mobile canine adjacent to the cleft, easing the elimination of dental plaque from the remaining fistula and reaching an accurate occlusion. Facial aesthetics was established by the illusionary effect of a removable crown complex which is joined onto a fixed partial denture with a precision attachment system.
  3,046 459 -
EDITORIAL
Dental amalgam-time to move on
Nairn H. F. Wilson, Christopher D Lynch
January-April 2014, 3(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/2278-9626.126200  
  2,897 577 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Insights into functional tea infused-chitosan hydrogels as potential bio-active restorative materials
Tamara V Perchyonok, Shengmiao Zhang, Sias Grobler, Theunis Oberholzer, Oberholzer Massey
January-April 2014, 3(1):22-28
DOI:10.4103/2278-9626.126205  
Introduction: We described novel chitosan hydrogels (chitosan-H) containing tea infusions (green, red and black) as functional additive prototypes with special focus on the design and functionality of dual action composite restorative materials. Their intended uses include remineralizing bases/liners, therapeutically active restorative materials and/or functional additives as well as functional prototype of the drug delivery system. Materials and Methods: The above mentioned hydrogels were prepared by dispersion of the corresponding component in glycerol and acetic acid with the addition of chitosan gelling agent. The surface morphology scanning electron microscope (SEM), release behavior (physiological pH as well as acidic conditions), stability of the hydrogels as well as antioxidant capacity of the tea infused hydrogels was evaluated. Results: It was found that all the anti-oxidant chitosan-H hydrogels treated dentine gave significantly (P < 0.05; Non-parametric ANOVA test) higher shear bond strength values than dentine treated or not treated with phosphoric acid. Overall, there was a small relapse in the shear bond strength after 6 months. The SEM is employed to observe the surface of the newly made functional restorative materials. The anti-oxidant capacity of various black, red and green tea infusions was investigated and demonstrated increased antioxidant stability of the newly prepared material stability. Conclusion: We have developed and evaluated several functional chitosan hydrogels with several targets as therapeutic restorative materials, the added benefits of their unique functionality involve increased dentin adhesive bond strengths (after 24 h and after 6 month), concept of using functional materials as carriers for pro-drugs as well as display certain degree of defense mechanism for a free radical damage.
  2,935 456 1
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Cardamom and oral health
Shailee Fotedar, Vikas Fotedar
January-April 2014, 3(1):86-86
DOI:10.4103/2278-9626.126221  
  3,023 364 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Periodontal status of Tibetan refugees residing in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India
Poonam Mahajan, KL Veeresha, Ajay Mahajan
January-April 2014, 3(1):29-33
DOI:10.4103/2278-9626.126206  
Objective: Oral health is an integral part of the general health, however, oral health has been given lower priority than other health problems especially among the underprivileged refugee population. Out of total refugees in the world, 70% of the refugees belong to Tibet. This study was taken up to assess the periodontal status and treatment needs of Tibetans residing in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India and to explore and suggest better oral health care delivery to them. Materials and Methods: Tibetans above the age of 12 years were included in this cross-sectional study. American Dental Association (ADA) Type-3 examination was conducted. Data regarding demography and oral health practices was recorded on a structured format. For recording periodontal status and treatment need index was used. The data was analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. Results: A total of 550 subjects were examined for CPITN. Maximum subjects 266 (48.3%) had a CPITN score of 2 (Calculus and other plaque retentive factors). 27% (149) subjects had healthy peridontium. Female periodontal status was worse than males. It was also found that mean number of healthy sextants was higher in subjects who brush twice a day (3.5) when compared to those who brush once a day (2.4). Conclusion: The study revealed poor periodontal status among Tibetans and dental treatment requirement steadily increased with the advancement of age and was also related to other factors like poverty, education, and their tough life where oral health is given no priority.
  2,879 352 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Personalized dentistry
Sandhya Maheshwari, Sanjeev Kumar Verma, A Balamani, KC Prabhat
January-April 2014, 3(1):85-85
DOI:10.4103/2278-9626.126220  
  1,664 260 -
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