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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 46-52

Cytogenetic biomonitoring of premalignant and malignant oral lesions by micronuclei assessment: A screening evaluation


1 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Purvanchal Institute of Dental Sciences, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Prosthodontics, Purvanchal Institute of Dental Sciences, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Kothiwal Dental College and Research Centre, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Department of Orthodontics, Azamgarh Dental College, Azamgarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
5 Department of Orthodontics, Purvanchal Institute of Dental Sciences, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Shally Khanna
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Purvanchal Institute of Dental Sciences, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2278-9626.126211

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Background: Micronuclei (MN) are extracytoplasmic nuclear bodies, which are induced in cells by numerous genotoxic agents that damage the chromosomes. The damaged chromosomes in the form of acentric chromatids or chromosome fragments lag behind in anaphase when centric elements move towards the spindle poles, and thus leads to the formation of secondary nuclei called MN, which are also transmitted to the daughter cells. In oral exfoliated cells these MN are induced by variety of carcinogenic compounds like tobacco, betel nut, and alcohol; which have been suggested to be the most common cause of premalignant lesion conditions and oral cancer, and thus can be used as a biomarker for cytogenetic damage. Objectives: To evaluate and compare the frequency of MN in Papanicolaou (PAP) stained smears of oral exfoliated cells from healthy control, leukoplakia, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) group in a small population of eastern Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Cytological smears were prepared from buccal mucosa of healthy control, leukoplakia patients, and SCC group and stained with PAP stain. Slides were screened, and micronucleated cells were counted out of thousand and compared in different groups. Results: Mean MN count was highest for the SCC group (10.13), followed by leukoplakia group (6.15), and lowest for healthy controls (3.28); with count ranging from 7-14, 4-8, and 2-4, respectively. Tukey's HSD and ROC analysis showed the intergroup differences were significant statistically (P < 0.05) and thus, mean MN density seems to be a useful tool for differential diagnosis with high accuracy. Conclusion: MN were higher in SCC than in leukoplakia and healthy control, moreover. Hence, MN assay can be used as an important biomarker for cytogenetic damage in oral leukoplakia and SCC.


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