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LETTER TO EDITOR
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 332-333

Smoking affects periodontal health


1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, H. P. Government Dental College and Hospital, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India
2 Department of Periodontology, H. P. Government Dental College and Hospital, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication5-Aug-2013

Correspondence Address:
Vinay Kumar Bhardwaj
Department of Public Health Dentistry, H. P. Government Dental College and Hospital, Shimla - 171 001, Himachal Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2278-9626.115991

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How to cite this article:
Bhardwaj VK, Jhingta P, Sharma D, Fotedar S. Smoking affects periodontal health. Eur J Gen Dent 2013;2:332-3

How to cite this URL:
Bhardwaj VK, Jhingta P, Sharma D, Fotedar S. Smoking affects periodontal health. Eur J Gen Dent [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Apr 24];2:332-3. Available from: http://www.ejgd.org/text.asp?2013/2/3/332/115991

Sir,

Smoking is on the rise in the developing world; however, falling in developed nations. About 15 billion cigarettes are sold daily or 10 million every minute. [1] Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for many diseases, and recent evidence indicates that smoking adversely influences periodontal health having a detrimental impact on oral health. [2] To reveal this fact a cross-sectional study was carried out in the Shimla city. A total of 371 male subjects were selected by a simple random sampling for the clinical examination. Age group of the study population was between 18 years and 58 years. Each sextant was defined for codes as follows: healthy, scored as Community Periodontal Index (CPI) code 0; bleeding observed on probing, CPI code 1; calculus detected, CPI code 2; pocket of 4-5 mm, CPI code 3; or pocket of 6 mm or more, CPI code 4. All the subjects were interviewed regarding the smoking habit. The percentage of healthy periodontium was significantly higher in non-smokers (3.49%) than in smokers (2.81%). The percentages of CPI scores '0' was higher among non-smokers than non-smokers whereas scores (1, 2, 3, and 4) were higher in smokers than in non-smokers. The difference was a statistically highly significant for scores 3 and 4 (P<0.01). Similar results were seen in the study by Garre et al. [3] and Rosa et al., [4] which has revealed that smoking is positively related to periodontitis. Keeping in view this revealed fact of association between smoking and poor periodontal health, there is a great need of awareness to be created among all sections of society by oral health professionals. People should also be educated about other harmful effects of smoking on general health as well. Dental public-health efforts, therefore, need to include, and emphasize the role of the smoking and not only oral hygiene in the primary preventive efforts.

 
  References Top

1.Matthews JB, Chen FM, Milward MR, Wright HJ, Carter K, McDonagh A, et al. Effect of nicotine, cotinine and cigarette smoke extract on the neutrophil respiratory burst. J Clin Periodontol 2011;38:208-18.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]    
2.Haber J. Smoking is a major risk factor for periodontitis. Curr Opin Periodontol 1994;27:12-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Gaare D, Joelimar FA, Ouderaa FV, Rolla G. A cross-sectional study of DMFT and CPITN scores in a group of Indonesian soldiers. Scand J Dent Res 1989;97:20-4.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Rosa GM, Lucas GQ, Lucas ON. Cigarette smoking and alveolar bone in young adults: A study using digitized radiographs. J Periodontol 2008;79:232-44.  Back to cited text no. 4
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